Giving Back to Wounded Knee Foundation


  1. One of the oldest man-made artifacts in North America is an approximately 27,000 year old scraper found near Old Crow Flats in the Yukon Territory.
  2. The Oraibi Pueblo has been continuously inhabited for at least one thousand years, making it the oldest town in North America.
  3. In 1869, Ely Parker or Donehogawa, a Seneca, was the first Indian to be appointed United States Indian Commissioner. Prior to that he was a brigadier general in the United States Army and was with General Ulyssey S. Grant at Appamatox when General Robert E.Lee surrendered.
  4. The Iroquois Confederacy was a representative and deliberate body composed of six nations, within which women had a strong voice. Some scholars argue strongly that it was a direct influence on the shaping of the United States Constitution.
  5. Many current highways in the United States are ancient trails first used by Indians and, of course, later "blazed" by European and Euro-American explorers.
  6. All of the current surviving Indian nations in the United Stattes are older than the United States.
  7. Charles Curtiss, vice-president under Herbert Hoover, was a Kaw Indian from Oklahoma. He was also the first Indian to serve in the United States Senate.
  8. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1824 within the Department of War.
  9. The Indian Health Service was established in 1955 and is now part of the Department of Health and Human Services.
  10. Indians were made citizens of the United States by an act of Congress in 1924. American women were given the right to vote in 1920.
  11. About eight thousand Indians, served in the United States armed forces in World War I, twenty-five thousand in World War II, twelve thousand in the Korean War, Forty-five thousand iin the Vietnam War, and one of the first American servicemen to die in Desert Storm was a Sioux Indian Marine from South Dakota.
  12. Eighteen United States Congressional Medals of Honor were awarded to soldiers of the United States Seventh and Ninth cavalries for their "action" at Wounded Knee in 1890.
  13. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 "gave" Indian tribes the right to self-government.
  14. The concept of reservations for Indians was born before the United States was born.
  15. There are 384 federal and 23 state reservations in the United States.
  16. Virtually no reservation is a solid block of Indian-owned or controlled land. Most reservations have to contend with substantial white land ownership within their borders, which in turn is the basis for continuing questions and problems regarding civil and criminal jurisdiction.
  17. Twenty-six of the fifty state names are taken from Indian names or words. Including Texas and Indiana loossely into that category raises their number to twenty-eight.
  18. Thirty-one of the fifty states have at least one Indian reservation, with California having seventy-five. There are no reservations in Oklahoma or Alaska.
  19. Two of the bigger issues today are gambling on reservations and the location of nuclear waste storage facilities on reservations.
  20. There are at least twenty-six Indian-founded and controlled colleges on several reservations across this country.
  21. At least twenty-seven non-Indian institutions of higher learning offer at least a major in Indian Studies.
  22. Sixty to seventy thousand Indian young people are now enrolled in college.
  23. The Pawnee were known as the "Wolf People". Those who are familiar with Plains hand signs know that the sign for Pawnee is the same as the sign for the wolf -- the middle and index finger of the right hand upraised in a V-shape to the right of the head (like the sign for "victory").
  24. A Lakota name for the Winter Moon (probably December) was also the Moon When The Wolves Come Together, or Mayaca Akimnaiciyapi Wi. Knowing these kinds of cultural connections, I begin to feel a kinship of spirit with the wolf and with the people of other tribes.


Joseph Marshalll III
On Behalf of the Wolf and the First Peoples
Museum of New Mexico Press
Santa Fe
And Other Sources


Hao Winte photographed by Edward Curtis

Hao Winte
Edward S. Curtis Photographer

"A Man has a right to look down on someone only if he is helping him to get up."

Black Elk, Lakota Holy Man/Chief


"The American Indian is of the soil, whether it be the region of the forests, plains, pueblos, or mesas. He fits into the landscape, for the hand that fashioned the continent also fashioned the man for his surroundings. He once grew as naturally as the wild sunflowers; he belongs just as the buffalo belonged....."

Luther Standing Bear
Oglala Sioux Chief
1868(?) to 1939.

Wolf Pack